Catalog of Types of Conflict

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Conflicts for Political Power:
These conflicts revolve around issues related to governance, political power, and the distribution of resources. They can include struggles for political control, election-related disputes, and protests against governments. Eg: Syria (2011-Present)
Civil Wars:
Civil wars are internal conflicts within a country where different groups or factions fight for control over territory, resources, or political power. These conflicts often involve armed combatants and can be highly destructive. Eg: Yemen, (2015-Present)
Ethnic Conflicts:

Ethnic conflicts are driven by tensions between different ethnic groups
within a society. They can arise from issues such as discrimination, historical grievances,
or competition for resources. Ethnic conflicts may involve violence or political struggles.
Eg: Tigray conflict in Ethiopia, which started in late 2020, involves ethnic tensions and
violence in the Tigray region, leading to displacement and human rights abuses.

Religious Conflicts:
Religious conflicts stem from differences in religious beliefs or practices. These conflicts can range from interfaith tensions to more violent conflicts driven by religious extremism. Eg: Myanmar (Burma) Buddhists vs Rohingya Muslim minority,
Nationalism and Independence Movements:
These conflicts involve movements seeking greater autonomy or independence from a larger political entity. Nationalism can lead to conflicts over self-determination and sovereignty. Eg: South Sudan, Kurdish Independence Movement
Territorial Conflicts:

Territorial conflicts occur when two or more parties dispute
control over a specific piece of land or territory. These disputes can be between neighboring countries or within a country. Eg: Russia and Ukraine, South China Sea.

Boundary Disputes: These conflicts involve disagreements over territorial boundaries, such as disputes between neighboring property owners or nations. Eg: border dispute between India and China in the Ladakh region, which escalated in 2020

Border Conflicts: Border conflicts involve disputes between countries over their territorial boundaries and often require diplomatic negotiations and resolutions. Eg: Eritrea and Ethiopia,

Herder Farmer Conflict:

Conflicts between farmers and herders, and between different pastoralist groups, in the Sahel frequently revolve around issues of contested land use (grazing vs. crop cultivation) and access to water. At times these conflicts are triggered, or exacerbated, by drought-induced movements of pastoralists.

Resource-Based Conflicts:

Resource-based conflicts are driven by competition for
valuable resources such as water, minerals, oil, or land. These disputes can lead to
economic and environmental challenges. Eg: Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) ,Sierra Leone.

Environmental Conflicts: These conflicts focus on environmental issues and may involve disputes over conservation efforts, land use, pollution, or resource
extraction. Eg: Ogoniland Oil Pollution (Nigeria), Dakota Access Pipeline

Interstate Conflicts:

Interstate conflicts involve disputes between two or more sovereign states. These conflicts can range from diplomatic disputes to military confrontations. Eg: Armenia and Azerbaijan in 2020 over the Nagorno-Karabakh region , Russia v Ukraine

Proxy Wars:

Proxy wars involve conflicts in which external powers support opposing factions within another country. These conflicts often have geopolitical dimensions and can be highly complex. Eg: Yemeni Civil War, Korean War, Vietnam War

Cultural/ Ideological Conflicts:

Cultural conflicts arise from clashes between different cultural or social groups. These conflicts can be related to language, customs, or identity.

Human Rights Conflicts:

Human rights conflicts involve violations of fundamental human rights and can include issues such as genocide, ethnic cleansing, or mass displacement. Eg: Bosnian Genocide, Cambodian Genocide, Tiananmen Square

Labor Conflicts: These conflicts involve disputes between workers and employers over issues such as wages, working conditions, benefits, and labor rights. Labor strikes and negotiations are common features of labor conflicts. Eg: Marikana Massacre (2012 – South Africa), The Hong Kong Protests (2019 – Hong Kong)

Commercial Conflicts:

Commercial conflicts occur in the business world and may include disputes over contracts, partnerships, intellectual property rights, or competition in the marketplace.

Cyber Conflicts:

Cyber conflicts encompass disputes related to cyberspace, including cyberattacks, data breaches, online harassment, and debates over internet governance. Eg: Cyber Conflicts in the South China Sea (ongoing), Election Interference, WannaCry Ransomware (2017), SolarWinds Cyberattack (2020): Stuxnet (2010)

Community Conflicts:
Community conflicts involve disputes within a local community or neighborhood and can relate to issues like land development, zoning, or public services.